More than 60% of diabetes mellitus (DM) patients do not reach HbA1c target goals, despite overwhelming evidence that strict glucose management can reduce the development of chronic complications in these patients. The American Osteopathic Association has recognized the acute clinical need to help more patients reach target glucose goals, and has developed the Clinical Assessment Program to help its members improve patient outcomes in their practices. In addition, DM management recommendations have been updated and newer agents, such as incretin-based agents, have been included. These agents might address some of the unmet needs in the clinical care of conventional type 2 diabetes and may help lower the number of patients not safely reaching HbA1c goals. Education can bridge the gap between osteopathic physicians' current awareness of DM treatment guidelines, as well as the place and unique mechanisms of action of newer therapies in type 2 diabetes management, and the confident application of that knowledge in clinical practice.
||Jeffrey S. Freeman, DO, FACOI (Chair)
Professor of Internal Medicine
Chairman of Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine
Jeffrey S. Freeman, DO, FACOI is Professor and Chairman of the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism in the Department of Internal Medicine at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine. Dr. Freeman earned his medical degree at the College of Osteopathic Medicine and Surgery in Des Moines, IA. He served an internship at the Pontiac Osteopathic Hospital and a residency at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ) Stratford Division; he completed a fellowship in endocrinology and metabolism at the UMDNJ/Veterans Hospital in East Orange.
Dr. Freeman's clinical interest focuses on diabetes therapy and its complications. He has been an investigator in trials of pramlintide, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor dual agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors, and glucose sensing. He has served as Assistant Editor of Diabetes Forecast and has published numerous peer-reviewed articles, most recently "Are analogue insulins superior to human insulin in clinical practice?" in Current Diabetes Reports, "New therapeutic options: management strategies to optimize glycemic control." in the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, and "Incretin-Based Therapies in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes" in Current Drug Therapy.
Dr. Freeman is a member of the Philadelphia Endocrinology Society and the American Diabetes Association (ADA), and a founding board member of the Northeast Lipid Association. For the past 15 years, he has been Chairman of the Division of Metabolic Diseases for the Pennsylvania Osteopathic Medical Association. As chairman, he has developed high-level educational programs relating to diabetes and other endocrine disorders for primary care providers. Dr. Freeman is a previous Program Director of the Endocrinology Division of the American College of Osteopathic Internists, Past President of the ADA Pennsylvania Affiliate, and Past President-elect of the ADA Mid-Atlantic Region. Also, he has been a member of the Board of Directors of the Philadelphia chapter of the ADA and served on several committees of both the Philadelphia chapter and the Pennsylvania affiliate. In 1985, he was the recipient of a Service Citation.
||Ellen Miller, MD
Associate Professor of Medicine
Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine
Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Ellen Hirschman Miller, MD is a Clinical Associate Professor of Medicine at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine and the Vice President of Academic Affairs at the Southside Hospital in Bay Shore, NY. She also has a private practice in internal medicine, endocrinology, and reproductive endocrinology in Hewlett, NY.
Dr. Miller received her medical degree from New Jersey Medical School in 1980 and completed her post-graduate work at Beth Israel Medical Center and Columbia University. She is on the editorial board of Postgraduate Medicine and is a Fellow of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists.
Dr. Miller has conducted extensive research in the areas of endocrinology and women's health, and has authored articles that have been published in numerous medical journals.
||Natasha N. Bray, DO
Department of Internal Medicine
Nova Southeastern University – College of Osteopathic Medicine
Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Natasha N. Bray, DO is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Internal Medicine at Nova Southeastern University – College of Osteopathic Medicine and serves as Program Director of the Internal Medicine Residency Program at Broward General Medical Center in Fort Lauderdale, FL. Dr. Bray completed her internal medicine residency and fellowship training at Cambridge Health Alliance, a Harvard Medical School-affiliated program in Cambridge, MA, and recently concluded her health policy fellowship training through the American Osteopathic Association. In addition to her extensive teaching responsibilities, Dr. Bray is active in the university's academic medical practice.
This program is intended for osteopathic physicians.
This program is designed to address the following IOM competencies: provide patient-centered care and employ evidence-based practice.
At the conclusion of this activity, participants should be able to demonstrate improved ability to:
- Explain the mechanisms of action of available incretin-based therapies and discuss their place in the treatment algorithm for DM management
- Review AACE and ADA recommendations for diabetes management
- Make therapeutic decisions (including lifestyle changes, HbA1c targets, and drug choices) based on a patient's presentation and preferences and the presence of comorbid conditions
- Discuss upcoming therapeutic strategies that may improve patient adherence
The AOA's continuing medical education program (CME) strives for growth of knowledge, refinement of skills, and the deepening of understanding for the osteopathic profession. The AOA Board of Trustees establishes accreditation policy for osteopathic CME sponsors. The Council on Continuing Medical Education (CCME) has been delegated authority by the AOA Board of Trustees to monitor osteopathic CME and to grant or deny Category 1 accreditation status to osteopathic CME sponsors.
To receive credit for participating in this activity complete the evaluation and post test following the completion of the activity. Participants must earn 75% or higher on the post test in order to earn credit.
The American Osteopathic Association's Council on Continuing Medical Education approved the activity for 1.0 hour of Category 1-B AOA credit.
The American Osteopathic Association and Rockpointe Corporation adhere to the policies and guidelines, including the Standards for Commercial Support, set forth to providers by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) and all other professional organizations, as applicable, stating those activities where continuing education credits are awarded must be balanced, independent, objective, and scientifically rigorous. All persons in a position to control the content of a continuing medical education program are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships with any commercial interest to AOA or Rockpointe, as well as to learners. All conflicts are identified and resolved by AOA and Rockpointe in accordance with the Standards for Commercial Support in advance of delivery of the activity to learners. The content of this activity was vetted by an external medical reviewer to assure objectivity and that the activity is free of commercial bias.
The faculty reported the following relevant financial relationships that they or their spouse/partner have with commercial interests:
Jeffrey S. Freeman, DO, FACOI: Speaker: Merck, NovoNordisk, GlaxoSmithKline
Ellen Miller, MD: Speaker: Merck
Natasha N. Bray, DO: Nothing to Disclose
Non-faculty content contributors and/or reviewers reported the following relevant financial relationships that they or their spouse/partner have with commercial interests:
Carole Drexel, PhD; Bradley Pine; Blair St. Amand; Jay Katz: Nothing to Disclose
The contents of some CME/CE activities may contain discussions of non-approved or off-label uses of some agents mentioned. Please consult the prescribing information for full disclosure of approved uses.
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